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    1. Evolutionary Biology

    The last common ancestor of animals lacked the HIF pathway and respired in low-oxygen environments

    Daniel B Mills et al.
    Sponges and ctenophores lack hypoxia-inducible factors, suggesting that the metazoan last common ancestor could have lived aerobically under severe hypoxia and did not need to regulate its transcription in response to oxygen availability.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Increased longevity due to sexual activity in mole-rats is associated with transcriptional changes in the HPA stress axis

    Arne Sahm et al.
    The fact that sexual activity/reproduction doubles the lifespan of certain rodent species is most likely linked to critical changes in the regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal stress axis.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Expansion of the circadian transcriptome in Brassica rapa and genome-wide diversification of paralog expression patterns

    Kathleen Greenham et al.
    Whole genome duplication in Brassica rapa is accompanied by both expansion of the circadian transcriptome and widespread temporal reconfiguration of gene regulatory networks consistent with subfunctionalization among pairs of paralogs.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Genetic and environmental determinants of variation in the plasma lipidome of older Australian twins

    Matthew WK Wong et al.
    A minor subset of plasma lipids are heritable, and this is associated with gene expression of transcripts related to roles beyond lipid metabolism, including immune function and cell signalling.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Cell-type diversity and regionalized gene expression in the planarian intestine

    David J Forsthoefel et al.
    Application of laser-capture microdissection to planarian intestinal tissue provides a new tool for analysis of tissue-specific gene expression in flatworms, and a new resource to advance investigations of gastrointestinal regeneration.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Genes associated with ant social behavior show distinct transcriptional and evolutionary patterns

    Alexander S Mikheyev, Timothy A Linksvayer
    Genes associated with age-based division of labor in ants exist in distinct regulatory and evolutionary contexts; genes up-regulated in young nurses are loosely connected and rapidly evolving while genes up-regulated in old foragers are highly connected and conserved.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Characterization of cephalic and non-cephalic sensory cell types provides insight into joint photo- and mechanoreceptor evolution

    Roger Revilla-i-Domingo et al.
    Molecular, cellular and behavioral genetic approaches in Platynereis dumerilii indicate that r-Opsins can act as ancient, light-dependent modulators of mechanosensation, and suggest that light-independent mechanosensory roles of r-Opsins evolved secondarily.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Natural selection and repeated patterns of molecular evolution following allopatric divergence

    Yibo Dong et al.
    The genomic architecture of allopatric species is a mosaic of many conserved genes and a few adaptive ones, reflecting balance between conservation of ancestral functions and evolution of new features.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Hemimetabolous insects elucidate the origin of sexual development via alternative splicing

    Judith Wexler et al.
    Sexual differentiation controlled by sex-specific mRNA splicing evolved in a step-wise manner in insects.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Context-enriched interactome powered by proteomics helps the identification of novel regulators of macrophage activation

    Arda Halu et al.
    Enriching the interactome with context-specific information from proteomics helps the identification of novel regulators of macrophage activation.