Veterans with PTSD show increased attention to a history of unexpected outcomes during loss learning, both as measured by computational model-derived behavioral parameters and in increased neural signaling in amygdala and insula.
Map-like organisations of relational knowledge can be extracted from the hippocampal-entorhinal system in situations where relationships are non-spatial rather than spatial, discrete rather than continuous, and unavailable to conscious awareness.
While current theories assume that mood is dominated by most recent experiences, computational modeling shows that mood is shaped by first experiences that carry a long-lasting overarching influence on mood.
Decision-makers are able to intentionally control neural excitability to strategically bias sensory evidence accumulation towards the decision bound that maximizes reward within a given ecological context.
The anticipation of rewards turns out to have its own hedonic value, on top of that of the reward itself; a wide range of behavioral and neurophysiological data suggest that this anticipation is boosted by prediction errors.
Chronic alcohol exposure results in a long-lasting, enhanced endocannabinoid signalling at orbitostriatal synapses that is expressed in a projection-, synapse-, and behaviorally computation-specific manner.