Contrary to the generally accepted model, condensin maintains proper gene expression by promoting the accurate segregation of chromosomes and the partitioning of the RNA-exosome throughout mitosis, instead of directly regulating transcription.
C. elegans equalizes the expression of X-chromosome genes between the sexes by reducing the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to promoters of X-linked genes in hermaphrodites, using a chromosome-restructuring complex called condensin.
The condensin I subunit Cap-G is expressed in post-mitotic neurons and its removal, especially from less mature neurons, results in gene expression changes, reduced survival and behavioural defects in Drosophila.
Reconstitution of DNA loop extrusion in cellular contexts using Xenopus egg extracts shows that condensin extrudes DNA loops non-symmetrically in metaphase, whereas cohesin extrudes DNA loops symmetrically in interphase.
Seemingly contradictory findings of single-molecule and in vivo experiments on a major mechanism of chromosome organization are reconciled by computationally investigating mechanisms of loop extrusion that are consistent with both.