Contrary to the generally accepted model, condensin maintains proper gene expression by promoting the accurate segregation of chromosomes and the partitioning of the RNA-exosome throughout mitosis, instead of directly regulating transcription.
The condensin I subunit Cap-G is expressed in post-mitotic neurons and its removal, especially from less mature neurons, results in gene expression changes, reduced survival and behavioural defects in Drosophila.
Reconstitution of DNA loop extrusion in cellular contexts using Xenopus egg extracts shows that condensin extrudes DNA loops non-symmetrically in metaphase, whereas cohesin extrudes DNA loops symmetrically in interphase.
A combination of structural, biochemical, single-molecule and in vivo methods are used to show how ParB locally condenses the bacterial chromosome near the origin and earmarks this region for segregation.
C. elegans equalizes the expression of X-chromosome genes between the sexes by reducing the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to promoters of X-linked genes in hermaphrodites, using a chromosome-restructuring complex called condensin.