Although central nervous system (CNS) regeneration has been considered to be controlled by CNS microenvironment, CNS injury causes leading to leakage of circulating factors into CNS, which promotes CNS regeneration.
A newly identified component in the architecture of the axon/myelin-unit – the septin/anillin scaffold – maintains the structure of myelin in the central nervous system, thereby preventing myelin outfoldings.
Mapping individual neural stem cells to their corresponding embryonic and postembryonic progeny shows that these sets of neurons have profound molecular and anatomical similarities despite building different central nervous systems.
Common ancestries, activities and structural determinants of a modular (bi-)polarization control system encoded in free-living and obligate intracellular α-proteobacteria, including the rickettsial pathogens, are described.
Ablation of the Cdkn1c cell cycle inhibitor leads to defective muscle stem cell dynamics and myogenic potential, while progressive cytoplasmic to nuclear cellular localization of the Cdkn1c protein regulates growth arrest.
In contrast to previous post-mortem or fixed tissue histochemical reports, live calcium and mitochondrial imaging data suggest that the enteric nervous system is not generally affected in Parkinson's disease patients.