When coupling between STN spikes and cortical gamma oscillations was strong, subsequent movement was initiated earlier, independent of changes in mean firing rates, demonstrating the importance of relative spike timing.
In mouse models of Huntington's disease, the subthalamic nucleus, which suppresses movements, also exhibits impaired glutamate homeostasis, NMDA receptor-dependent mitochondrial oxidant stress, firing disruption, and 30% neuronal loss.
Midbrain dopaminergic neurons and a cortex-like structure called the arcopallium form part of a circuit that enables young songbirds to compare their own song with a template stored in memory, and use any discrepancies to improve their performance.
Neuronal activity in the striatum keeps track of elapsed time during the time production task while that in the cerebellum correlates with stochastic variation of self-timing in the range of several hundreds of milliseconds.
Intraoperative human brain recordings during a memory task reveal that when participants inhibit memory formation, the subthalamic nucleus shows higher beta power and beta coherence with areas of the lateral cortex implicated in memory processing.