Simultaneous EEG-fMRI reveals neural representations of decision confidence unfolding prior to explicit perceptual choices, in a region of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex typically linked to reward processing and value-based decisions.
Lmo4 specifies two neuron subclasses in the mouse neocortex by promoting postnatal co-expression of the transcription factors Ctip2 and Satb2 via chromatin remodelling in a time and area-specific manner.
While the basal ganglia have long been thought to mediate learning through dopamine-dependent striatal plasticity, their regulation of motor thalamus plays an unexpected and critical role in reinforcement.
When coupling between STN spikes and cortical gamma oscillations was strong, subsequent movement was initiated earlier, independent of changes in mean firing rates, demonstrating the importance of relative spike timing.
After complete spinal transection in adult rats, careful combinations of pharmacological and physical therapies create a novel cortical sensorimotor circuit that may bypass the lesion through biomechanical coupling, allowing animals to recover unassisted hindlimb locomotion.
The first complete 3D structures of mouse cholinergic neurons reveal the length and complexity of their axons, while calculations suggest that equivalent axons in the human brain are approximately than 100 meters long.