The helical rod structure and dynamic spring-like properties of the type 1 pilus are evolutionarily fine-tuned for functioning in host-pathogen interactions during urinary tract infection and gut colonization.
A robust method to quantitatively visualize HIV-1 replication complexes in infected cells shows that these complexes remain associated with the viral capsid beyond nuclear import in primary macrophages.
Allelic MLA immune receptors have an exceptional propensity to directly detect sequence-unrelated pathogen effectors and this feature might have facilitated functional diversification of the receptor in the host population.
The structure, function and mechanism of the malaria vaccine candidate CelTOS reveal a unique pore-forming and membrane-disrupting protein with specificity for the inner leaflet of host and vector cells.
Parallel losses of short-wave light sensitivity in diverse bats occurred through independent changes at multiple steps in the conversion of genotype into functional phenotype, including pre-, during, and post-transcription.