Irreversible differentiation into somatic cells is evolutionarily optimal if changing cell phenotype is costly, a few somatic cells already improve the organism's performance, and the organism is large enough.
Latest advances in biological timing studies substantiate an emerging concept of autonomous clocks that are normally entrained by the cell cycle and/or the circadian clock to run in synchrony, but have evolved to run independently to regulate different cellular events.
Network symmetry represents a new vantage point for dissecting complex information processing characteristics in multisite modification, and the breaking of symmetry can confer ordering of modification and absolute concentration robustness.
The nature of the phycobilisome–photosystem II supercomplex on the native thylakoid determined with cryo-electron tomography at an unprecedented resolution reveals that one phycobilisome interconnects with six photosystem monomers.
The necessity of studying extremophile organisms is exemplified by the structure of photosystem I from a high-light tolerant cyanobacteria, demonstrating the relationship between the structure and function in photosystem I.