The numerous reports in support of action-value representation in the striatum are based on statistical analyses that are subject to two critical confounds and, thus, this long-held belief of striatal action-value representation should be retested using different experiments and analyses.
Action-value signals previously found in many brain areas can be accounted for neither by concurrent serial correlations in neural activity and action value nor by signals for other decision variables.
An analysis of more than 70,000 journal articles, including 5405 that were first released as a preprint on bioRxiv, shows that articles with a preprint received 49% more attention and 36% more citations than articles without one.
Ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist and experimental model for schizophrenia, produces decision-making deficits in monkeys, which are predicted by a lowering of cortical excitation-inhibition balance in a spiking circuit model.
Changes to sensory predictions are encoded by beta oscillations, surprise due to prediction violations by gamma oscillations, and alpha oscillations may have a role in controlling the precision of predictions.
A simulation study is used to demonstrate how mistakes in identifying the experimental unit and the unit of analysis can lead to incorrect analyses and inappropriate inferences when reporting research studies.