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    1. Ecology

    Benefits of jasmonate-dependent defenses against vertebrate herbivores in nature

    Ricardo AR Machado et al.
    Uncovering an link between plant defense signaling and vertebrate feeding behavior suggests that large browsers may exert strong selection pressure on jasmonate-dependent secondary metabolites.
    1. Neuroscience

    CAPS-1 promotes fusion competence of stationary dense-core vesicles in presynaptic terminals of mammalian neurons

    Margherita Farina et al.
    Stationary dense-core vesicles depend on the CAPS-1 protein to fuse with the presynaptic membrane.
    1. Plant Biology

    An evolutionarily young defense metabolite influences the root growth of plants via the ancient TOR signaling pathway

    Frederikke Gro Malinovsky et al.
    Young defense metabolites are often believed to be solely outputs but evidence suggests that they can regulate ancient signaling pathways.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Subdued, a TMEM16 family Ca2+-activated Cl channel in Drosophila melanogaster with an unexpected role in host defense

    Xiu Ming Wong et al.
    A newly characterized calcium-activated chloride channel has been implicated in the immune system of Drosophila, shedding light on an enigmatic family of transmembrane proteins that are ubiquitous in nature.
    1. Neuroscience

    Ventromedial hypothalamic neurons control a defensive emotion state

    Prabhat S Kunwar et al.
    Stimulation of specific neurons within the hypothalamus triggers a fear-like emotion state and behavioral response in mice, challenging the textbook view that the hypothalamus serves simply as a relay for emotion states encoded in the amygdala.
    1. Ecology
    2. Plant Biology

    Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolism genes modulates field fitness

    Rachel Kerwin et al.
    Environmental heterogeneity may contribute to the high levels of genetic variation in glucosinolate genes found in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Evolutionary routes to biochemical innovation revealed by integrative analysis of a plant-defense related specialized metabolic pathway

    Gaurav D Moghe et al.
    Integrative analysis of a specialized metabolic pathway across multiple non-model species illustrates mechanisms of emergence of chemical novelty in plant metabolism.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Independent evolution of ancestral and novel defenses in a genus of toxic plants (Erysimum, Brassicaceae)

    Tobias Züst et al.
    A gain-of-function in a new chemical defense resulted in no trade-offs and and independent evolution between novel and ancestral defenses, suggesting low redundancy among different defensive chemicals.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Dominant Vibrio cholerae phage exhibits lysis inhibition sensitive to disruption by a defensive phage satellite

    Stephanie G Hays, Kimberley D Seed
    Genetic and molecular analyses identify and characterize an evolutionary battle over lysis timing wherein a bacteriophage delays lysis through lysis inhibition while a defensive phage satellite accelerates lysis.
    1. Ecology

    Tritrophic metabolism of plant chemical defenses and its effects on herbivore and predator performance

    Ruo Sun et al.
    Genetic manipulation demonstrates the costs and benefits of detoxifying glucosinolate plant defenses in a pest insect and its predator.