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    1. Neuroscience

    Criticality and degeneracy in injury-induced changes in primary afferent excitability and the implications for neuropathic pain

    Stéphanie Ratté et al.
    No single molecular change is uniquely necessary to cause neuropathic changes in primary afferent excitability; multiple different changes are sufficient.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Tissue-resident natural killer (NK) cells are cell lineages distinct from thymic and conventional splenic NK cells

    Dorothy K Sojka et al.
    Natural killer cells that were commonly thought to circulate around the body can actually reside in distinct tissues, such as in the liver, skin or uterus, and do not re-circulate.
    1. Neuroscience

    RGS7/Gβ5/R7BP complex regulates synaptic plasticity and memory by modulating hippocampal GABABR-GIRK signaling

    Olga Ostrovskaya et al.
    A critical regulator of inhibitory neurotransmitter signaling in the hippocampus has been identified in experiments on mice and been shown to play essential role in synaptic plasticity and memory.
    1. Neuroscience

    Midbrain dopamine neurons sustain inhibitory transmission using plasma membrane uptake of GABA, not synthesis

    Nicolas X Tritsch et al.
    The molecular mechanisms by which midbrain dopamine neurons acquire the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA for synaptic release are revealed.
    1. Cell Biology

    Pharmacological inhibition of cystine–glutamate exchange induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and ferroptosis

    Scott J Dixon et al.
    Erastin and sorafenib inhibit system xc- and induce ER stress, suggesting these may be useful tools for probing the functions of system xc- and its role in inducing ER stress and ferroptosis.
    1. Neuroscience

    The inhibitory microcircuit of the substantia nigra provides feedback gain control of the basal ganglia output

    Jennifer Brown et al.
    Negative feedback signals within the substantia nigra regulate the output of the basal ganglia, with implications for disorders such as Parkinson's disease.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Requirement of Smurf-mediated endocytosis of Patched1 in sonic hedgehog signal reception

    Shen Yue et al.
    Smurf1 and Smurf2 have essential functions in the mammalian Shh signaling pathway, binding to and ubiquitylating Patched1, leading to its endocytosis and subsequent degradation in lysosomes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Caenorhabditis elegans male sensory-motor neurons and dopaminergic support cells couple ejaculation and post-ejaculatory behaviors

    Brigitte LeBoeuf et al.
    In nematode worms, the length of the male refractory period–the time between matings–is regulated by multiple transmitters including dopamine, which both promotes ejaculation and reduces the activity of males post-copulation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    A comprehensive search for calcium binding sites critical for TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel activity

    Jason Tien et al.
    The identification of four acidic amino acids as potential calcium-binding residues in the TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel furthers the molecular understanding of this ion channel family.
    1. Neuroscience

    Protein kinase C is a calcium sensor for presynaptic short-term plasticity

    Diasynou Fioravante et al.
    Genetic and electrophysiology experiments provide the first direct evidence that protein kinase C is a calcium-sensing protein in post-tetanic potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity that supports short-term memory.