7,023 results found
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct roles of striatal direct and indirect pathways in value-based decision making

    Shinae Kwak, Min Whan Jung
    The direct and indirect pathways of the dorsal striatum play indispensable roles in value-dependent action selection and value learning, respectively.
    1. Neuroscience

    Striatal direct and indirect pathway neurons differentially control the encoding and updating of goal-directed learning

    James Peak et al.
    Direct and indirect pathway neurons in posterior dorsomedial striatum were found to play distinct roles, with the former necessary for encoding and the latter for updating goal-directed learning.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Cell Biology

    Direct measurement of TRPV4 and PIEZO1 activity reveals multiple mechanotransduction pathways in chondrocytes

    M Rocio Servin-Vences et al.
    The application of different types of mechanical stimuli to chondrocytes, either by stretching the membrane or deflecting cell-substrate contacts, reveals that there are distinct but overlapping mechanoelectrical transduction pathways in these cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Thalamocortical and corticothalamic pathways differentially contribute to goal-directed behaviors in the rat

    Fabien Alcaraz et al.
    Adaptive decision-making critically depends on antiparallel flows conveying distinct information within thalamocortical circuits, highlighting directionality of functional exchanges as a neural principle potentially at play in virtually any brain circuit with reciprocal projections.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Chemical modulation of transcriptionally enriched signaling pathways to optimize the conversion of fibroblasts into neurons

    Joseph Herdy et al.
    An unbiased RNAseq based strategy to identify targetable pathways and a streamlined lentiviral system provide a state of the art advance on direct fibroblast to neuron conversion.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Edge-strand of BepA interacts with immature LptD on the β-barrel assembly machine to direct it to on- and off-pathways

    Ryoji Miyazaki et al.
    In vivo crosslinking approaches revealed that the edge-strand of Escherichia coli metallopeptidase BepA interacts with an assembly intermediate of β-barrel outer membrane protein LptD on the outer membrane protein translocon for its targeting to degradation or maturation.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Ngn1 inhibits astrogliogenesis through induction of miR-9 during neuronal fate specification

    Jing Zhao et al.
    During neurogenesis, Neurogenin 1 activates the microRNA miR-9, which directly targets the Jak-Stat pathway to inhibit astrogliogenesis.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    A KRAS-directed transcriptional silencing pathway that mediates the CpG island methylator phenotype

    Ryan W Serra et al.
    A pathway directed by the KRAS oncoprotein leads to aberrant hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing of many genes including tumor suppressors, thereby promoting tumor development.
    1. Neuroscience

    Direct neural pathways convey distinct visual information to Drosophila mushroom bodies

    Katrin Vogt et al.
    Building on previous work (Vogt et al. 2014), separate visual pathways have been identified to convey information for brightness and color to the learning-related area of the Drosophila brain.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Female-biased upregulation of insulin pathway activity mediates the sex difference in Drosophila body size plasticity

    Jason W Millington et al.
    The ability to adjust body size in response to diet is greater in Drosophila females than males because of a sex difference in the nutrient-dependent regulation of the insulin pathway.

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