Homology information implicit in regions of conserved synteny allows quantification of gene origination by complete sequence divergence, revealing a larger-than-expected role for other mechanisms of origin, including de novo origination.
The genomic architecture of allopatric species is a mosaic of many conserved genes and a few adaptive ones, reflecting balance between conservation of ancestral functions and evolution of new features.
Cell biological features are subject to stochastic forces of mutation and random genetic drift, which together cause lineages exposed to identical selection pressures to diverge, and mean phenotypes to deviate from expectations under optimizing selection.
Demonstrating extreme diversity across crustaceans while contrasting with evolutionary stability in insects, mushroom body homologues further underpin the unity of Pancrustacea and shed new light on arthropod brain evolution.
The substrate for evolutionary divergence does not lie in changes in neuronal cell number or targeting, but rather in sensory perception and synaptic partner choice within invariant, prepatterned neuronal processes.
While photoreceptor and bipolar cells exhibit very similar cis-regulatory grammars, subtle differences in homeodomain motif enrichment represent a key distinction driving the divergence in their transcriptomes.