74 results found
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Measuring the distribution of fitness effects in somatic evolution by combining clonal dynamics with dN/dS ratios

    Marc J Williams et al.
    Measurement of the distribution of fitness effects of new mutations arising in human oesophagus and skin, via new mathematical theory linking dn/ds values and fitness coefficients.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Co-option of an endogenous retrovirus envelope for host defense in hominid ancestors

    Daniel Blanco-Melo et al.
    The reconstitution of a functional envelope protein from an extinct hominid retrovirus reveals its receptor and an ancient host defense that may have led to the extinction of the virus.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Functional role of the type 1 pilus rod structure in mediating host-pathogen interactions

    Caitlin N Spaulding et al.
    The helical rod structure and dynamic spring-like properties of the type 1 pilus are evolutionarily fine-tuned for functioning in host-pathogen interactions during urinary tract infection and gut colonization.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    A de novo evolved gene in the house mouse regulates female pregnancy cycles

    Chen Xie et al.
    A female specifically expressed new protein-coding gene that has emerged out of non-coding sequences without detectable signatures of adaptive evolution affects female pregnancy cycles.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Immune genes are hotspots of shared positive selection across birds and mammals

    Allison J Shultz, Timothy B Sackton
    Pathogens, particularly viruses, target the same genes over deep evolutionary time, resulting in shared signatures of positive selection and transcriptional responses at the same genes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Selective rab11 transport and the intrinsic regenerative ability of CNS axons

    Hiroaki Koseki et al.
    Mature axons lose the ability to regenerate because key growth molecules are excluded through changes in vesicle transport, and restoring transport can restore regeneration.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Spen links RNA-mediated endogenous retrovirus silencing and X chromosome inactivation

    Ava C Carter et al.
    A long noncoding RNA uses viral mimicry to achieve developmental gene silencing across a chromosome.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Retrocopying expands the functional repertoire of APOBEC3 antiviral proteins in primates

    Lei Yang et al.
    Genomes take advantage of the gene-duplicating ability of retroelements to birth novel innate immune defense genes.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Plant Biology

    Evidence for suppression of immunity as a driver for genomic introgressions and host range expansion in races of Albugo candida, a generalist parasite

    Mark McMullan et al.
    Hybridization and introgression blur species boundaries and broaden genetic diversity available for adaptation; and widespread introgression underpins the evolution of races of the generalist pathogen Albugo candida that specialise on different host plant species.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Thousands of novel translated open reading frames in humans inferred by ribosome footprint profiling

    Anil Raj et al.
    Over 7,000 novel translated sequences have been identified from human cells, including several hundred in annotated noncoding RNA, pseudogenes and de novo assembled transcripts.

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