Dopamine neurons projecting to different targets receive a similar set of inputs, rather than forming reciprocal connections, whereas those projecting to the posterior striatum receive a distinct set of inputs.
Memory over 24 hours was impaired in Parkinson's patients off, rather than on, dopaminergic medication during reinforcement learning, whereas dopamine did not affect positive and negative reinforcement, in contrast to previous studies.
The subcortical visual pathway through the midbrain superior colliculus is responsible for visually evoked Pavlovian conditioning and dopamine neuron responses with predicted value in monkeys, which remained after lesioning V1.
Dopamine neurons signal value prediction errors (VPEs) integrating information about both reward and aversion, in low reward contexts, whereas VPEs in some dopamine neurons are distorted in high reward contexts.
Dopamine release within the mouse external globus pallidus, an area of very sparse innervation, is observed and described for the first time through a new technique: flashing false fluorescent neurotransmitters.