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    1. Neuroscience

    Reward signal in a recurrent circuit drives appetitive long-term memory formation

    Toshiharu Ichinose et al.
    A recurrent reward circuit in Drosophila, comprised of specific dopamine neurons and a single class of mushroom body output neurons, transforms a nascent memory trace into a stable long-term memory.
    1. Neuroscience

    Reward prediction error does not explain movement selectivity in DMS-projecting dopamine neurons

    Rachel S Lee et al.
    Despite the fundamental relationship between movement and value, they are represented in a separable manner in dopamine neurons.
    1. Neuroscience

    Orbital frontal cortex updates state-induced value change for decision-making

    Emily T Baltz et al.
    Orbital frontal cortex projection neuron activity is necessary to update state-dependent value change to control model-based behavior.
    1. Neuroscience

    Shared mushroom body circuits underlie visual and olfactory memories in Drosophila

    Katrin Vogt et al.
    One memory center in the fly brain processes distinct appetitive and aversive associative memories of olfactory and visual cues using shared local circuits.
    1. Neuroscience

    Identification of Redeye, a new sleep-regulating protein whose expression is modulated by sleep amount

    Mi Shi et al.
    A gene found in Drosophila, and named redeye, encodes a protein that accumulates during sleep deprivation and forms part of the homeostatic system that promotes and maintains sleep.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Cis-regulatory basis of sister cell type divergence in the vertebrate retina

    Daniel P Murphy et al.
    While photoreceptor and bipolar cells exhibit very similar cis-regulatory grammars, subtle differences in homeodomain motif enrichment represent a key distinction driving the divergence in their transcriptomes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Inhibition of oxidative stress in cholinergic projection neurons fully rescues aging-associated olfactory circuit degeneration in Drosophila

    Ashiq Hussain et al.
    Drosophila genetics and behavior reveal that oxidative stress induced axonal degeneration in a single class of neurons drives the functional decline of an entire neural network and the behavior it controls.
    1. Neuroscience

    State transitions in the substantia nigra reticulata predict the onset of motor deficits in models of progressive dopamine depletion in mice

    Amanda M Willard et al.
    The transition in basal ganglia output from the healthy to the diseased state is biphasic, stereotyped across models, and suggests key time points for delivering therapeutic interventions.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Environmental changes in oxygen tension reveal ROS-dependent neurogenesis and regeneration in the adult newt brain

    L Shahul Hameed et al.
    Control of neural stem cells by reactive oxygen species (ROS) provides a link between systemic shifts in oxygen tension and neuronal regeneration, and suggests an evolutionary driving force for the inherent ability of newts to regenerate their brain cells.
    1. Cell Biology

    Mitochondrial Rab GAPs govern autophagosome biogenesis during mitophagy

    Koji Yamano et al.
    Two GAP proteins bound to mitochondria regulate the enyzme Rab7, and thereby the expansion of the isolation membrane during mitophagy, downstream of PINK1 and Parkin, two proteins that are mutated in familial Parkinson's disease.