Administration of dopamine and opioid receptor antagonists resulted in reduced reward anticipation (effort and increased negative facial reactions), but only administration of opioid antagonists resulted in reduced liking (facial reactions).
Transsynaptic mapping of the postsynaptic connections of mushroom body output neurons reveal both divergent and convergent projections allowing for multimodal integration prior to initiation of an output response.
An insect-like mushroom body in one group of crustaceans, the mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda), suggests either an ancient origin of this center and its reduction and loss in other crustaceans, or an extraordinary example of convergent evolution with the insect mushroom body.
The smoking cessation drug varenicline (Chantix) and other weak base ligands reduce a4b2-type nicotinic receptor (a4b2R) upregulation through slow intracellular release due to selective trapping in acidic vesicles that contain a4b2Rs.
Determining how GIRK2 activity depends on the concentration of Gβγ subunits in lipid membranes at different Na+ concentrations has allowed the Gβγ concentration generated during GABAB activation in neurons to be estimated.