Recordings from serotonin-producing neurons in the brain reveal that these neurons are highly activated by sudden changes in previously familiar environments, potentially explaining why serotonin is important for learning to adapt to such changes.
While the basal ganglia have long been thought to mediate learning through dopamine-dependent striatal plasticity, their regulation of motor thalamus plays an unexpected and critical role in reinforcement.
A continuously expressed LIM HD factor, Lmx1b, acts at successive stages to orchestrate the progressive morphological maturation of a long-range profusely arborized neuromodulatory axonal projection pathway.
Dopamine neurons signal value prediction errors (VPEs) integrating information about both reward and aversion, in low reward contexts, whereas VPEs in some dopamine neurons are distorted in high reward contexts.
Somatostatin interneurons are novel mediators of serotonergic modulation in entorhinal cortex via activation of 5-HT2A receptors, a receptor involved in the etiology of different psychiatric disorders.
Pet1 neurons actively maintain cardiorespiratory tone and dynamic range in mouse neonates and critically support the recovery response to apneas, informing brain findings in the sudden infant death syndrome.