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    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Metabolism: Evolution retraces its steps to advance

    Daniel J Kliebenstein
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    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cancer Biology

    Anti-Cancer Drugs: The mitochondrial paradox

    Sophie L Penman et al.
    A structural motif that is found in two cancer drugs may be responsible for their ability to tackle cancers and for the side-effects caused by the drugs.
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    1. Cell Biology

    Muscle Contraction: Too much of a good thing

    H Lee Sweeney
    A mutation that causes heart disease in humans increases the number of active myosin heads during contraction in the muscles of fruit flies, leading to the progressive dysfunction of the flight muscles and heart tube.
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    1. Cell Biology

    Ophthalmology: Keeping blood vessels out of sight

    Dawn Sim, Marcus Fruttiger
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    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Multiplexed measurement of variant abundance and activity reveals VKOR topology, active site and human variant impact

    Melissa A Chiasson et al.
    Human vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) has a four transmembrane domain topology that supports the use of a homology model, enabling identification of active site residues and human variant impact.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Convergent changes in muscle metabolism depend on duration of high-altitude ancestry across Andean waterfowl

    Neal J Dawson et al.
    Changes in pathways of lipid oxidation, glycolysis, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are common strategies to cope with high-altitude hypoxia, but some changes require longer evolutionary time to arise.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dopaminergic and opioidergic regulation during anticipation and consumption of social and nonsocial rewards

    Sebastian Korb et al.
    Administration of dopamine and opioid receptor antagonists resulted in reduced reward anticipation (effort and increased negative facial reactions), but only administration of opioid antagonists resulted in reduced liking (facial reactions).
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Positively selected modifications in the pore of TbAQP2 allow pentamidine to enter Trypanosoma brucei

    Ali H Alghamdi et al.
    Study of TbAQP2 adaptations and substrate interactions shows how this aquaglyceroporin enables cellular entry of large antimicrobial agents in Trypanosoma brucei.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Ecdysone steroid hormone remote controls intestinal stem cell fate decisions via the PPARγ-homolog Eip75B in Drosophila

    Lisa Zipper et al.
    A systemic hormone controls progenitor fate decisions independent of local fate determining pathways in the adult intestinal stem cell niche of Drosophila melanogaster..
    1. Neuroscience

    Male-predominant galanin mediates androgen-dependent aggressive chases in medaka

    Junpei Yamashita et al.
    In medaka fish, galanin-expressing neurons in the medial preoptic area occur nearly exclusively in males and mediate androgen-dependent male–male aggressive chases.