Neurons in the midbrain superior colliculus of free-flying echolocating bats represent 3D sensory space, and the depth tuning of single neurons is modulated by an animal's active sonar inspection of physical objects in its environment.
Some species of bats hunt for insects that are resting on surfaces by detecting interruptions in the echoes from that surface, suggesting that resting on rough surfaces may help insects to evade detection by echolocation.
Parallel losses of short-wave light sensitivity in diverse bats occurred through independent changes at multiple steps in the conversion of genotype into functional phenotype, including pre-, during, and post-transcription.
Vertebrate superfast muscles employ similar excitation–contraction strategies but distinct myosin heavy chain genes to allow superfast performance, revealing a maximum speed that cannot be overcome without sacrificing neural control.
Repeated evolution of eye regression in subterranean mammals helps identify genes and regulatory elements involved in visual perception and development of the eye, and predicts candidate sequences with a potential role in ocular disorders.