Neurons in the midbrain superior colliculus of free-flying echolocating bats represent 3D sensory space, and the depth tuning of single neurons is modulated by an animal's active sonar inspection of physical objects in its environment.
Some species of bats hunt for insects that are resting on surfaces by detecting interruptions in the echoes from that surface, suggesting that resting on rough surfaces may help insects to evade detection by echolocation.
An elaborated bat-predator model shows that even in high bat-densities, bats can successfully catch flying insects and that changing their signals’ frequency is not necessary for dealing with sensory interference.
Multiple independent directional selection events on a neural substrate that underpins domain-general associative abilities partly explains independent occurrences of complex behavior in different lineages of mammals.
Vertebrate superfast muscles employ similar excitation–contraction strategies but distinct myosin heavy chain genes to allow superfast performance, revealing a maximum speed that cannot be overcome without sacrificing neural control.