Quantification of all the major on- and off-pathway kinetic parameters in the transcription elongation cycle reveals that RNA polymerase II translocates slowly in a linear, non-branched Brownian ratchet mechanism.
Peptide and nitrate transporters have been converted into fluorescent reporters of transport activity and have been used to measure various transport properties including the dual affinity of the nitrate transceptor
The firing rates of neurons in the grasshopper auditory system are surprisingly robust to changes in temperature, and cell-intrinsic mechanisms are sufficient to explain this temperature insensitivity.
Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide reduce the mineral content but increase the levels of starch and sugars found in crop plants; which could exacerbate both obesity and malnutrition in some human populations.
In the cytosol, the proteins constituting cell-matrix adhesion sites form multi-protein building blocks which enter and leave these sites unaltered, thereby contributing to their rapid and correct self-assembly.