A three-dimensional investigation of extinct-tetrapod limbs shows that even though bone elongation and blood-cell production are intimately related to mammal long bones, these functions actually appeared successively in tetrapod evolution.
Targeted SOCS3 null mice reveal that maturation of cortical bone comprises both pore closure and accumulation of high density bone, requiring local suppression of gp130-STAT3 in osteocytes and subsequent osteoclastogenesis.
The clonal oriented cell dynamics enables directional expansion and accurate scaling of sheet-like or rod-like cartilaginous elements and uncouples the mechanisms of elongation from thickness or diameter control.
Integrated stress response-induced expression of ATF4 and its transactivation of SOX9 causes aberrant chondrocyte differentiation and skeletal defects which can be alleviated by modulating initiation-factor eIF2α phosphorylation translation control.
Osterix, a transcription factor regulating osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, is expressed in subsets of CAFs with osteogenic features and marks tumor infiltrating immune populations enriched in immune suppressive markers.