219 results found
    1. Developmental Biology

    Stella modulates transcriptional and endogenous retrovirus programs during maternal-to-zygotic transition

    Yun Huang et al.
    Soon after fertilisation, a critical portion of the embryonic genome is switched on through the actions of maternally inherited Stella, in part through controlling the activation of transposable elements.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Spen links RNA-mediated endogenous retrovirus silencing and X chromosome inactivation

    Ava C Carter et al.
    A long noncoding RNA uses viral mimicry to achieve developmental gene silencing across a chromosome.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Co-option of an endogenous retrovirus envelope for host defense in hominid ancestors

    Daniel Blanco-Melo et al.
    The reconstitution of a functional envelope protein from an extinct hominid retrovirus reveals its receptor and an ancient host defense that may have led to the extinction of the virus.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Domestic chickens activate a piRNA defense against avian leukosis virus

    Yu Huining Sun et al.
    To protect the germ line genome, chickens acquire new small RNA-based immune defense in response to recently endogenized retroviruses by turning a truncated provirus into a weapon.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Tracking interspecies transmission and long-term evolution of an ancient retrovirus using the genomes of modern mammals

    William E Diehl et al.
    Endogenous virus sequences in the genomes of modern mammals reveal the global spread of an ancient virus lineage, including frequent interspecies transmission, adaptation, and emergence spanning several million years of mammalian evolution
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Systematic perturbation of retroviral LTRs reveals widespread long-range effects on human gene regulation

    Daniel R Fuentes et al.
    A new approach combines guide RNA multiplexing with CRISPR activation and interference to facilitate functional studies of transposable elements present in hundreds of copies throughout the human genome.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Retrocopying expands the functional repertoire of APOBEC3 antiviral proteins in primates

    Lei Yang et al.
    Genomes take advantage of the gene-duplicating ability of retroelements to birth novel innate immune defense genes.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    TRIM28 promotes HIV-1 latency by SUMOylating CDK9 and inhibiting P-TEFb

    Xiancai Ma et al.
    TRIM28 was found to be a versatile dual-function latency contributor by bridging both suppressive epigenetic modifications and RNAP II transcriptional-pausing, and can be a novel target to develop latency-reversing agents.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Regulatory Networks: Reality check for transposon enhancers

    Julie Brind'Amour, Dixie L Mager
    Hundreds of retrovirus-like sequences have features that suggest they might be gene enhancers, but only a small fraction displays gene-regulating activity in experiments on mouse stem cells.
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    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Virology: Pushing the envelope

    Julia H Wildschutte, John M Coffin
    Primates have co-opted a viral gene to produce an envelope protein that prevents infection by the HERV-T virus and likely contributed to the extinction of this virus.
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