Single-cell transcriptional profiling reveals distinct neuronal subtypes of the lateral habenula differentially target downstream neuronal subtypes in the ventral tegmental area and dorsal raphe nucleus.
Placing the PACAP/PAC1 signaling within glutamate/GABA cell type and subregional contexts in mouse brain reveals its conspicuous role for sensorimotor circuit interaction through modulating neuronal plasticity.
Wnt3 accomplishes long-range distribution by extracellular diffusion controlled by expression, tissue morphology, interactions with heparan sulfate proteoglycans, and co-receptor-mediated receptor binding to regulate brain development in zebrafish embryos.
In monkeys, the integrity of the magnocellular subdivision of mediodorsal thalamus is important when using recent rewarded choices to promote persistence with a recently sampled choice during changing or uncertain reward guided-learning and decision-making tasks.
Increased theta/alpha band activities within the habenula area and the prefrontal cortex, as well as the increased synchrony between the two structures in the same frequency band can serve as an indicator for negative emotions in humans.
Neurons in the lateral habenula are activated by pain, bitterness and social defeat, and their responses are dynamically shaped by learning, suggesting a role in experience-dependent selection of behavioral actions to stressors.
The direct interaction of R-type Ca2+ channel Cav2.3 and GABAB receptor auxiliary subunits in the active zone of medial habenula terminals scales synaptic strength independent of GABAB receptor activation.