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    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling is an evolutionarily conserved determinant of chordate dorsal organizer

    Iryna Kozmikova, Zbynek Kozmik
    Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is essential for the specification of dorsal cell fate in amphioxus, suggesting a common evolutionary origin for the formation of the dorsal organizer in chordates.
    1. Developmental Biology

    MicroRNA-934 is a novel primate-specific small non-coding RNA with neurogenic function during early development

    Kanella Prodromidou et al.
    Primate-specific miR-934 mediates neurogenesis and downstream neuronal differentiation processes, modulating the expression of genes associated with the subplate, a region most prominent in primates, emerging during early cortical development.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Folded gastrulation and T48 drive the evolution of coordinated mesoderm internalization in flies

    Silvia Urbansky et al.
    Functional recapitulation of a likely evolutionary gain in gene expression shows that two genes are sufficient to switch mesoderm cell internalization from stochastic cell ingression to coordinated epithelial invagination.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Evolution-guided functional analyses reveal diverse antiviral specificities encoded by IFIT1 genes in mammals

    Matthew D Daugherty et al.
    Evolutionary innovation and turnover in the IFIT1 antiviral gene family has led to diverse repertoires of antiviral specificity across mammals.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Evolutionary diversification of the trypanosome haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor from an ancestral haemoglobin receptor

    Harriet Lane-Serff et al.
    The ligand specificity and expression profile of the haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor has diversified throughout the evolution of trypanosomes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neuroanatomy of a hydrothermal vent shrimp provides insights into the evolution of crustacean integrative brain centers

    Julia Machon et al.
    A neuroanatomical analysis of Rimicaris exoculata provides insights into these animal’s brain architecture to illustrate possible adaptations to the hydrothermal vent habitat with its extreme physicochemical conditions.
    1. Plant Biology

    LEAFY maintains apical stem cell activity during shoot development in the fern Ceratopteris richardii 

    Andrew RG Plackett et al.
    Transgenic analysis reveals a role for LEAFY in ferns that supports a trajectory from general to floral meristem-specific function as land plants evolved.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Ancient mechanisms for the evolution of the bicoid homeodomain's function in fly development

    Qinwen Liu et al.
    Transgenic animals carrying reconstructed ancestral alleles reveal how two ancient mutations allowed a regulatory protein to evolve a controlling role in embryonic development in flies.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Compensatory evolution drives multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Central Asia

    Matthias Merker et al.
    The genetic make-up of dominating MDR-TB clades in Central Asia is shaped by programmatic and socio-economic changes that led to fixation of resistance and bacterial fitness related mutations in the Soviet era.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Functional trade-offs and environmental variation shaped ancient trajectories in the evolution of dim-light vision

    Gianni M Castiglione, Belinda SW Chang
    The evolution of the light-sensitive visual pigment rhodopsin involved functional tradeoffs that may have sacrificed rod photosensitivity for active-state protein stability to mitigate phototoxicity in tetrapods, but not in fishes.