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    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Limb Development: A lesson in homology

    Nikola-Michael Prpic
    The same genes and signaling pathways control the formation of limbs in vertebrates, arthropods and cuttlefish.
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    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Brain Size: Gene losses did not stop the evolution of big brains

    Cristian Cañestro, Vittoria Roncalli
    Elephants and fruit bats have evolved large brains even though they have lost a gene that is fundamental to the supply of energy to the brain when glucose is not available.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Learning: The cerebellum influences vocal timing

    Court Hull
    We are starting to understand how the cerebellum contributes to vocal learning in songbirds.
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    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Neutral Evolution: The randomness that shapes our DNA

    Kelley Harris
    Just 5% of the human genome is subject to neutral evolution but this process remains central to understanding the history of human migration across the Earth.
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    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Intracellular Diffusion: How bacteria keep proteins moving

    Conrad W Mullineaux
    Bacteria contain large numbers of negatively-charged proteins to avoid the electrostatic interactions with ribosomes that would dramatically reduce protein diffusion.
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    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Multicellularity: The evolution of gene regulation

    Veronica Hinman, Gregory Cary
    The gene regulation mechanisms necessary for the development of complex multicellular animals have been found in sponges.
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  1. Research: Publication bias and the canonization of false facts

    Silas Boye Nissen et al.
    Publication bias, in which positive results are preferentially reported by authors and published by journals, can restrict the visibility of evidence against false claims and allow such claims to be canonized inappropriately as facts.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Adaptive Evolution: At the mercy of viruses

    Claus O Wilke, Sara L Sawyer
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    1. Developmental Biology
    Ciona intestinalis illustration

    The Natural History of Model Organisms: An organismal perspective on C. intestinalis development, origins and diversification

    Matthew J Kourakis, William C Smith
    The life cycle and morphology of the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis shed light on vertebrate evolution.
    1. Ecology
    2. Plant Biology
    Arabidopsis illustration

    The Natural History of Model Organisms: Planting molecular functions in an ecological context with Arabidopsis thaliana

    Ute Krämer
    Research in molecular ecology and evolution is increasingly utilizing the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, placing a spotlight on its natural history.