In a minimalistic, generic model of competitive communities in which evolution is constrained by life-history trade-offs, stable biodiversity emerges with species adapted to different functional niches.
Analysis of epidemiological data reveals that viral loads in newly HIV-1 infected individuals in Uganda have declined for two decades, and evolutionary modelling shows that attenuation of the virus explains this decline.
Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate an evolutionary trade-off between the amount of harm inflicted by a broad host-range virus and how effectively the virus positions itself within plants to enable onward transmission.
The evolution of the light-sensitive visual pigment rhodopsin involved functional tradeoffs that may have sacrificed rod photosensitivity for active-state protein stability to mitigate phototoxicity in tetrapods, but not in fishes.
A gain-of-function in a new chemical defense resulted in no trade-offs and and independent evolution between novel and ancestral defenses, suggesting low redundancy among different defensive chemicals.