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    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct signals in medial and lateral VTA dopamine neurons modulate fear extinction at different times

    Lili X Cai et al.
    Dopamine neurons in medial versus lateral VTA encode different signals during fear extinction, yet inhibition of both populations influences fear extinction, at different times.
    1. Neuroscience

    The cerebellum is involved in processing of predictions and prediction errors in a fear conditioning paradigm

    Thomas Michael Ernst et al.
    Pronounced cerebellar activation during unexpected omission of a potentially harmful event suggests that the cerebellum has to be added to the neural network processing prediction errors underlying emotional associative learning.
    1. Neuroscience

    Switch-like and persistent memory formation in individual Drosophila larvae

    Amanda Lesar et al.
    A new computer controlled behavioral assay and integrated training chamber for individual Drosophila larvae shows that larvae learn all at once and create long-term memories that last overnight.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Delayed antibiotic exposure induces population collapse in enterococcal communities with drug-resistant subpopulations

    Kelsey M Hallinen et al.
    Collapse of bacterial communities containing antibiotic-resistant and susceptible cells can be driven by increased population size or delayed drug exposure.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Phylodynamic theory of persistence, extinction and speciation of rapidly adapting pathogens

    Le Yan et al.
    A model of pathogen co-evolving with host population continuously acquiring immunity is used to identify evolutionary parameters allowing pathogen population to persist without going extinct or splitting into independent lineages.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Why is cyclic dominance so rare?

    Hye Jin Park et al.
    A mathematical model for a popular biological diversity mechanism, cyclic dominance, is more likely to emerge by assembly than by evolutionary diversification, which rationalizes why few empirically studies find it.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Ecology

    Trade-off shapes diversity in eco-evolutionary dynamics

    Farnoush Farahpour et al.
    In a minimalistic, generic model of competitive communities in which evolution is constrained by life-history trade-offs, stable biodiversity emerges with species adapted to different functional niches.
    1. Ecology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Education and Outreach: March Mammal Madness and the power of narrative in science outreach

    Katie Hinde et al.
    Hypothetical battles between animals can be used to interest the general public in biology.
    1. Neuroscience

    Brain signatures of a multiscale process of sequence learning in humans

    Maxime Maheu et al.
    Evidence for multiple brain systems for sequence processing involving statistical inferences at multiple scales.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Co-option of an endogenous retrovirus envelope for host defense in hominid ancestors

    Daniel Blanco-Melo et al.
    The reconstitution of a functional envelope protein from an extinct hominid retrovirus reveals its receptor and an ancient host defense that may have led to the extinction of the virus.