Direct measurement of finely patterned mechanical properties in a native basement membrane demonstrate how force asymmetries arising from this extracellular matrix, rather than from cells, can precisely sculpt a tissue.
Genetic and biochemical analyses demonstrate that cell-surface lectin receptors can potentially function as extracellular NAD+-binding receptors and provide direct evidence for extracellular NAD+ being a bona fide endogenous signaling molecule in plants.
NETs induction, a central component of the innate immune response, utilises assorted signalling pathways as demonstrated through the analysis of healthy and patient neutrophils treated with five distinct stimuli.
Glutamate receptor auxiliary proteins exert their effects on receptor gating through two divergent extracellular loops, explaining subunit specificity and allowing the construction of null versions that form complexes normally but do not modify receptor gating.
Supporting cells in the cochlea change their shape in response to purinergic receptor activation, which influences hair cell excitability by altering potassium redistribution in the extracellular space.