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    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Generation of inner ear hair cells by direct lineage conversion of primary somatic cells

    Louise Menendez et al.
    Direct reprogramming of somatic cells to an inner ear sensory hair cell-like state provides an experimental platform to identify causes and treatments for hair cell loss and hearing deficits.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Near-infrared dual bioluminescence imaging in mouse models of cancer using infraluciferin

    Cassandra L Stowe et al.
    Two cellular populations can be tracked in the same small animal model using near-infrared bioluminescence imaging, for the first time opening up the window for multi-coloured bioluminescence.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Size control of the inner ear via hydraulic feedback

    Kishore R Mosaliganti et al.
    Size regulation of the otic vesicle, the progenitor of the inner ear, is mediated by mechanical feedback involving fluid influx, hydraulic pressure, and tissue mechanics.
    1. Neuroscience

    Activation of the same mGluR5 receptors in the amygdala causes divergent effects on specific versus indiscriminate fear

    Mohammed Mostafizur Rahman et al.
    Activation of the same glutamate receptor in the lateral amygdala gives rise to distinct effects on specific versus indiscriminate fear by modulating intrinsic excitability and synaptic plasticity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the amygdala constrain fear memory reconsolidation

    Josué Haubrich et al.
    The overactivation of noradrenergic inputs to the amygdala during severe fear learning increases memory stability at the expense of lability, rendering the trace resistant to memory destabilization and reconsolidation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cue-inhibited ventrolateral periaqueductal gray neurons signal fear output and threat probability in male rats

    Kristina M Wright et al.
    Ventrolateral periaqueductal gray neurons signal fear output through patterned inhibition of neural activity.
    1. Neuroscience

    MeCP2 in cholinergic interneurons of nucleus accumbens regulates fear learning

    Ying Zhang et al.
    Robust fear learning deficits and decreased tonic activity of NAc cholinergic interneurons caused by depletion of MeCP2 could be attributed to an elevation in α2-containing GABAA receptors.
    1. Neuroscience

    Transient acidosis while retrieving a fear-related memory enhances its lability

    Jianyang Du et al.
    Activating ASIC channels in the amygdala makes a single reminder more effective at rendering consolidated fear memories labile and susceptible to modification.
    1. Neuroscience

    Amount of fear extinction changes its underlying mechanisms

    Bobae An et al.
    The inhibition mechanism of fear extinction operates primarily in the early phase of extinction training, and the erasure mechanism takes over after that.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Near-infrared photoactivatable control of Ca2+ signaling and optogenetic immunomodulation

    Lian He et al.
    A near-infrared light-stimulable optogenetic platform enables remote and wireless manipulation of calcium signaling and immune responses both in vitro and in vivo to achieve tailored function.