A computational method identifies the functions of orphan enzymes by organizing them into metabolic pathways; the prediction of a new l-gulonate catabolic pathway is experimentally tested and confirmed.
Endocannabinoid activation of the CB1 receptor on retinal ganglion cells in the eye results in enhanced excitability and responsiveness to visual stimulation through a novel mechanism involving intracellular chloride regulation.
An experimentally constrained multiscale mathematical model predicts that branched actin networks self-organize at endocytic sites and bend to produce force, which was verified with cryo-electron tomography of intact cells.
Heme accumulation is toxic, but deficiency of the heme transporter HRG1/SLC48A1 causes heme sequestration and crystallization into hemozoin within enlarged lysosomes of macrophages, thereby conferring heme tolerance to mammals.
The proteins Bax and Bak, which increase the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane during apoptosis, are also crucial for generating a mitochondrial membrane pore that is specifically involved in necrosis.