Motor training decreased the unit synaptic response and suppressed induction of long-term depression at parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapses in the cerebellum, supporting involvement of long-term depression in motor learning.
Quantitative analysis of behavior coupled with computational modeling reveal the set of circuit-level principles that underlie cerebellar-dependent motor learning in smooth pursuit eye movements of monkeys across timescales.
Electrophysiological recordings in monkeys reveal that cerebellar complex spikes encode future reward size when reward information is first made available, but not during reward delivery or smooth pursuit eye movement.
Patterned optogenetic stimulation and analysis of neural activity provide convergent evidence that cerebellar Purkinje cells drive eye movements with a rapid rate code, without an additional contribution of spike irregularity.
Different Purkinje cell subpopulations show distinct developmental profiles of physiological activity, climbing fiber inputs and axonal and dendritic morphology, matching different timelines of cerebellum-dependent behaviors.
During learning, one climbing fiber input instructs plasticity that is expressed in the simple-spike responses of cerebellar Purkinje cells, and causes neural learning that may inhibit future climbing fiber instructions.
A basidiomycete yeast closely related to fungal smuts is an antagonistic microbe in the Arabidopsis leaf phyllosphere that inhibits infection by Albugo laibachii via a GH25 hydrolase with lysozyme activity.