Francisella tularensis spreads from cell to cell when macrophages engulf small portions of infected cells upon cell contact, forming distinctive a double membraned endosome containing multiple bacteria per individual vacuole.
Quantifiable bioenergetic parameters, determined from extracellular flux analyses, are distinct between macrophages infected with Mycobacteriumtuberculosis or vaccine strain M. bovis BCG, enabling assessment of future vaccine and drug efficacy.
Physiological differentiation during symbiosis leads to division of labor between smaller and larger cells in an uncultured bacterial tubeworm symbiont population and results in remarkable metabolic diversity and complexity.
Complement opsonized HIV exposure gives rise to a colorectal mucosal environment with an initial suppressed antiviral response and increased infection of immune cells and altered activation of T cells.
Axonal metabolic flux analysis demonstrates that expression of NMNAT1 blocks axonal degeneration in cultured mouse neurons not by altering NAD+ synthesis, but rather by inhibiting injury-induced, SARM1-dependent NAD+ consumption.