The animal phylogeny of glutamate receptors indicates that vertebrate types do not account for all receptor classes originated during evolution, neither are they the pinnacle of a linear evolutive process.
Tree crickets can optimize the baffles they make to increase call loudness without any progressive optimization, and manufacture an optimal baffle in a single attempt, by using a simple yet highly accurate heuristic.
Probability of upcoming actions modulates subclasses of neurons in frontoparietal motor-planning areas in a complementary fashion and frontal-lobe processing takes the leading role when primates commit to a decision.
Reconstruction of great auk population dynamics suggests that hunting pressure alone could have been responsible for their extinction, demonstrating that even abundant, widespread species can be vulnerable to intense exploitation.
Single-cell FRET measurements reveal large temporal activity fluctuations within this signaling pathway in Escherichia coli, caused by stochasticity of receptor methylation combined with allosteric interactions and slow rearrangements within receptor clusters.