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    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Symptom evolution following the emergence of maize streak virus

    Adérito L Monjane et al.
    Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate an evolutionary trade-off between the amount of harm inflicted by a broad host-range virus and how effectively the virus positions itself within plants to enable onward transmission.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Molecular architecture of the 90S small subunit pre-ribosome

    Qi Sun et al.
    The nearly complete architecture of the gigantic 90S precursor of small ribosomal subunit is determined by cryo-EM.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Stochastic modelling, Bayesian inference, and new in vivo measurements elucidate the debated mtDNA bottleneck mechanism

    Iain G Johnston et al.
    New modelling, statistics, and experiments show that cellular populations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evolve during development according to solvable stochastic dynamics involving binomial partitioning and random turnover, facilitating a predictive and quantitative theory of the mtDNA bottleneck.
    1. Neuroscience

    Microbiota-driven transcriptional changes in prefrontal cortex override genetic differences in social behavior

    Mar Gacias et al.
    Gut microbiota can influence mPFC transcriptional profiles and myelin content, overriding the impact of genetic background in the development of social avoidance behavior.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Screening identifies small molecules that enhance the maturation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived myotubes

    Sridhar Selvaraj et al.
    Treatment of human pluripotent stem cell-derived myotubes with a cocktail of small molecules induces their maturation, as shown by gene expression, biochemical and functional assays.
    1. Neuroscience

    Hippocampal low-frequency stimulation prevents seizure generation in a mouse model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Enya Paschen et al.
    Optogenetic and electrical low-frequency stimulation in the sclerotic hippocampus prevents the emergence of spontaneous focal and evoked generalized seizures in a mouse epilepsy model.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Repeated outbreaks drive the evolution of bacteriophage communication

    Hilje M Doekes et al.
    Mathematical modelling suggests that the evolution of communication between bacterial viruses requires repeated outbreak events, and the model then predicts typical communication strategies.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Casposase structure and the mechanistic link between DNA transposition and spacer acquisition by CRISPR-Cas

    Alison B Hickman et al.
    The tetrameric structure of a casposase bound to DNA and its biochemical properties show how a transposase could have evolved to perform CRISPR-Cas spacer acquisition.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Natural selection and repeated patterns of molecular evolution following allopatric divergence

    Yibo Dong et al.
    The genomic architecture of allopatric species is a mosaic of many conserved genes and a few adaptive ones, reflecting balance between conservation of ancestral functions and evolution of new features.
    1. Neuroscience

    Control of voluntary and optogenetically perturbed locomotion by spike rate and timing of neurons of the mouse cerebellar nuclei

    Rashmi Sarnaik, Indira M Raman
    Stride-related modulated firing by neurons of the cerebellar nuclei is required for smooth execution of practiced locomotion and persists more easily with synchronous than asynchronous Purkinje-mediated inhibition.