Two common mutant versions of estrogen receptor alpha achieve constitutive activity and hormone-resistance by preferentially adopting a suite of conformations that expose the coregulator-binding surface.
A more balanced distribution of NIH grant funding among investigators would strengthen the diversity of the research enterprise, increase the likelihood of scientific breakthroughs, and lead to a greater return on taxpayers' investments.
Sodium ions control the rates of both substrate binding and dissociation of an archaeal homologue of glutamate transporters in a manner that minimizes binding intermediates and maximizes transport efficiency.
Drosophila has almost all transcription factor binding specificities available to humans; and human transcription factors with divergent specificities operate in cell types that are not found in fruit flies.
A multi-phase wrinkling model accounts for the radial and circumferential tension and differential expansion between a uniformly proliferating outer fluid-like layer and an incompressible core that together drive cerebellar folding.