The animal phylogeny of glutamate receptors indicates that vertebrate types do not account for all receptor classes originated during evolution, neither are they the pinnacle of a linear evolutive process.
Single molecule subunit counting, FRET and electrophysiology experiments reveal that metabotropic glutamate receptor subunits interact and rearrange at the level of the transmembrane domains in response to allosteric modulators.
Introduction of single photoswitchable unnatural amino acid into a neuronal receptor provides reversible, rapid and robust control of its activity by light, representing an important contribution to the fast expanding field of optopharmacology.
Innovative approaches were used to identify the specific pharmacological properties of heterodimeric metabotropic glutamate receptors composed of mGlu2 and mGlu4 subunits, and reveal their existence in a neuronal cell line and in perforant path terminals.
Dopamine neurons make novel glutamatergic connections to striatal cholinergic interneurons in the lateral dorsal striatum that are mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors coupled to TrpC channels.
Glutamate receptor auxiliary proteins exert their effects on receptor gating through two divergent extracellular loops, explaining subunit specificity and allowing the construction of null versions that form complexes normally but do not modify receptor gating.
In mouse models of Huntington's disease, the subthalamic nucleus, which suppresses movements, also exhibits impaired glutamate homeostasis, NMDA receptor-dependent mitochondrial oxidant stress, firing disruption, and 30% neuronal loss.