Skin-associated bacteria underlie the production of a potent defensive neurotoxin in newts, impacting host physiology, molecular evolution, and predator-prey interactions in a coevolutionary arms race.
Gene knock-out of the omega-1 ribonuclease of Schistosoma mansoni eggs resulted in immunologically impaired phenotype, showcasing the novel application of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing and utility for functional genomics in schistosomes.
The rapid killing of macrophages by Mycobacterium tuberculosis aggregates, and the subsequent proliferation of the bacteria inside the dead cell, leads to a cell death cascade and explains the coupling of necrosis and pathogen growth observed in active disease.
Sarcoidosis, a granulomatous disease characterized by macrophage and T-cell activation, is found to be associated with increased HIF-1α transcriptional activity, and modulation of HIF-1α regulates inflammatory immune responses.
Penetration of the fluoroquinolones in tuberculosis lesions is heterogeneous even in fully cellular areas, is driven by macrophage content and decreases as the distance from lesion outer rim increases.
An in vivo drug screen of FDA-approved compounds in zebrafish identified host-directed therapies against mycobacterial infection, including the drug clemastine, which targets the P2RX7-inflammasome axis to enhance bacterial control.
Humans with mutations in the AIRE gene exhibit common autoantibodies targeting ovarian and intestinal antigens, including intestinal dysfunction-associated antibodies to enteroendocrine transcription factor RFX6.