A large variety of spatial representations implied in rodent navigation could arise robustly and rapidly from inputs with a weak spatial structure, by an interaction of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity.
Mathematical modeling suggests that grid cells in the rodent brain use fundamental principles of number theory to maximize the efficiency of spatial mapping, enabling animals to accurately encode their location with as few neurons as possible.
Grid cells lose their hexagonality during hippocampal inactivation, but maintain temporal and spatial synchrony between pairs of cells, implying that hippocampus does not determine phase relations between grid cells.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging performed while people imagined directions from stationary viewpoints supports theories suggesting that spatially tuned cells such as grid cells underlie mental simulation for future thinking.
A computational model for the formation of neural networks of grid cells in virtual bats suggests that the highly ordered networks presumed to support spatial navigation in two dimensions cannot be routinely established in three-dimensional space.