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    1. Neuroscience

    Reward signal in a recurrent circuit drives appetitive long-term memory formation

    Toshiharu Ichinose et al.
    A recurrent reward circuit in Drosophila, comprised of specific dopamine neurons and a single class of mushroom body output neurons, transforms a nascent memory trace into a stable long-term memory.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Oxyntomodulin regulates resetting of the liver circadian clock by food

    Dominic Landgraf et al.
    The gut-released peptide oxyntomodulin mediates the alignment of liver clock gene and metabolic transcript rhythms with the timing of food intake by postprandial induction of hepatic Per gene expression.
    1. Neuroscience

    Optogenetic inhibition-mediated activity-dependent modification of CA1 pyramidal-interneuron connections during behavior

    Igor Gridchyn et al.
    The optogenetic manipulation of hippocampal neuronal circuit activity revealed plastic changes of pyramidal-interneuron connections in behaving animals, which were primarily governed by the firing rate change of postsynaptic interneurons.
    1. Neuroscience

    Native KCC2 interactome reveals PACSIN1 as a critical regulator of synaptic inhibition

    Vivek Mahadevan et al.
    Unbiased functional proteomics reveal that protein interactions are a key regulator of the strength of synaptic inhibition in neurons of the central nervous system.
    1. Neuroscience

    The leak channel NALCN controls tonic firing and glycolytic sensitivity of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons

    Andrew Lutas et al.
    Basal ganglia output neurons use the NALCN leak channel to maintain their characteristic tonic firing, and this channel is important for the modulation of firing by metabolic or receptor-mediated signals.
    1. Neuroscience

    Inhibitory muscarinic acetylcholine receptors enhance aversive olfactory learning in adult Drosophila

    Noa Bielopolski et al.
    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor type A in adult Drosophila inhibits Kenyon cells, and is required for aversive olfactory learning and learning-associated synaptic depression between Kenyon cells and their output neurons.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Neuroscience

    Super-resolution imaging of synaptic and Extra-synaptic AMPA receptors with different-sized fluorescent probes

    Sang Hak Lee et al.
    Small probes show that most AMPA receptors are constrained near or in the synapses.
    1. Neuroscience

    Purinergic regulation of vascular tone in the retrotrapezoid nucleus is specialized to support the drive to breathe

    Virginia E Hawkins et al.
    CO2/H+-dependent purinergic signaling by astrocytes provides specialized control of vascular tone in a brainstem respiratory center in a manner that contributes to respiratory behavior.
    1. Neuroscience

    Silent synapses generate sparse and orthogonal action potential firing in adult-born hippocampal granule cells

    Liyi Li et al.
    Young neurons of the adult hippocampus are synaptically activated by a small group of non-overlapping afferent excitatory fibers, due to high synaptic gain and sparse connectivity, important for sparse and orthogonal coding during hippocampal information processing.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neto auxiliary proteins control both the trafficking and biophysical properties of the kainate receptor GluK1

    Nengyin Sheng et al.
    Auxiliary subunits Neto1 and Neto2 regulate the GluK1 receptor targeting to excitatory silent synapses through different molecular mechanisms and also modify receptor biophysics through distinct mechanisms.