Pronounced cerebellar activation during unexpected omission of a potentially harmful event suggests that the cerebellum has to be added to the neural network processing prediction errors underlying emotional associative learning.
The Sip-Triggered Optogenetic Behavior Enclosure (STROBE) produces robust behaviors via activation of peripheral or central neurons in the fly, and mimics key features of feeding driven by chemical taste ligands.
Human primary olfactory cortical regions can be parcellated into anatomically distinct areas based on whole-brain functional connectivity profiles, suggesting distinct, parallel functional pathways in the human olfactory system.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) analysis in polyextremophile red algae (Cyanidiales) provides explanations for the nonexistence of cumulative effects and eukaryotic pangenomes, and highlights differences between HGT and native genes.
The Drosophila lateral horn, a higher olfactory brain area, contains >165 genetically defined cell types with stereotyped odour responses across animals and improved odor categorisation compared with their inputs.