68 results found
    1. Ecology

    Experimental evaluation of the importance of colonization history in early-life gut microbiota assembly

    Inés Martínez et al.
    Experiments in ex-germ-free mice establish a measurable effect of colonization history on gut microbiota assembly, illuminating a potential cause for the high levels of unexplained individuality in host-associated microbial communities.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Contingency and chance erase necessity in the experimental evolution of ancestral proteins

    Victoria Cochran Xie et al.
    Replicating experimental evolution from ancestral proteins shows that historical contingency steadily overwhelms chance and necessity as the primary cause of evolutionary variation in molecular sequences on long phylogenetic timescales.
    1. Neuroscience

    Punishment insensitivity emerges from impaired contingency detection, not aversion insensitivity or reward dominance

    Philip Jean-Richard-dit-Bressel et al.
    Behavioral analyses show that individuals insensitive to punishment are afraid of aversive events, they are simply unable to change their behaviour to avoid them.
    1. Neuroscience

    Ventral pallidal encoding of reward-seeking behavior depends on the underlying associative structure

    Jocelyn M Richard et al.
    Reward-related cues elicit phasic changes in activity in ventral pallidum neurons, which predict and functionally contribute to the speed of behaviors trained on the basis of act-outcome, but not stimulus-outcome, contingencies.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Intermolecular epistasis shaped the function and evolution of an ancient transcription factor and its DNA binding sites

    Dave W Anderson et al.
    Experimental mapping of the joint sequence space of an ancient transcription factor (TF) and its DNA binding sites reveals that epistasis across the molecular interface permitted the evolution of a new and specific TF-DNA complex.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Philosophy of Biology: The meanings of 'function' in biology and the problematic case of de novo gene emergence

    Diane Marie Keeling et al.
    A lexicon to help scientists and philosophers discuss the meaning of function in molecular biology more clearly is proposed.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Reverse evolution leads to genotypic incompatibility despite functional and active site convergence

    Miriam Kaltenbach et al.
    Enzyme evolution is reversible on a structural and functional (phenotypic) level, but through a different mutational pathway that leads to genotypic incompatibility with the ancestor.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The roles of history, chance, and natural selection in the evolution of antibiotic resistance

    Alfonso Santos-Lopez et al.
    Selection imposed by antibiotics may dominate evolutionary forces acting on opportunistic pathogens like Acinetobacter baumannii, yet chance effects and a prior history in biofilm may constrain resistance and impose collateral sensitivities.
    1. Ecology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Education and Outreach: March Mammal Madness and the power of narrative in science outreach

    Katie Hinde et al.
    Hypothetical battles between animals can be used to interest the general public in biology.
  1. Research: Sci-Hub provides access to nearly all scholarly literature

    Daniel S Himmelstein et al.
    The availability of almost all articles from toll access journals in the Sci-Hub repository will disrupt scholarly publishing towards more open models.

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