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    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Cretaceous dinosaur bone contains recent organic material and provides an environment conducive to microbial communities

    Evan T Saitta et al.
    Subterranean fossil bone hosts a living microbiome different from the surrounding sediment without evidence of original protein preservation.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Striking parallels between dorsoventral patterning in Drosophila and Gryllus reveal a complex evolutionary history behind a model gene regulatory network

    Matthias Pechmann et al.
    Crucial functions of Toll signalling during dorsoventral axis formation might have evolved convergently in flies and crickets.
    1. Ecology

    Extinction risk and conservation of the world’s sharks and rays

    Nicholas K Dulvy et al.
    One-quarter of the Chondrichthyes have an elevated risk of extinction, mainly as a result of overfishing.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    A new genus of horse from Pleistocene North America

    Peter D Heintzman et al.
    The extinct stilt-legged equids of North America are not related to Asiatic asses or horses, but instead represent a distinct lineage outside of living equid diversity that became extinct in the terminal Pleistocene.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Rampant tooth loss across 200 million years of frog evolution

    Daniel J Paluh et al.
    Teeth are maintained in two amphibian groups (caecilians and salamanders) but were lost in frogs over 20 times independently, a higher incidence of edentulism than any other major vertebrate group.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Novel neuroanatomical integration and scaling define avian brain shape evolution and development

    Akinobu Watanabe et al.
    More integrated brains in crown birds evolved through a mosaic assembly of new evolutionary and developmental dynamics across neuroanatomical regions that occurred along the dinosaur-bird transition.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Ancient DNA reveals the lost domestication history of South American camelids in Northern Chile and across the Andes

    Paloma Diaz-Maroto et al.
    aDNA revealed a model of domestication where an ancient guanaco population no longer exists, the loss of the ancient vicuña genetic variation in the modern populations, and frequently interbreeding practices.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    A synthetic biology approach to probing nucleosome symmetry

    Yuichi Ichikawa et al.
    A novel system for expression of asymmetric nucleosomes in vivo enables mechanistic studies on histone modification readouts in the cell.
    1. Ecology
    2. Plant Biology

    Present-day central African forest is a legacy of the 19th century human history

    Julie Morin-Rivat et al.
    The cessation of major anthropogenic disturbances since European colonization in the forests of central Africa leads to a canopy closing, and to the disappearance of certain light-demanding tree species.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Increasing Notch signaling antagonizes PRC2-mediated silencing to promote reprograming of germ cells into neurons

    Stefanie Seelk et al.
    Increased Notch signaling enhances germ cell reprograming in C. elegans by antagonizing PRC2-mediated repression, which results in the activation of UTX-1 and other reprograming-promoting genes.