Killing their neighbors allows bacteria to steal genes, including antibiotic resistance genes, which we observed under a microscope, quantified, modeled, and predicted potentially guiding strategies to combat it.
Parallel horizontal gene transfer has spread a bacteriolytic gene family to all domains of life, and has bestowed a niche-transcending adaptation in recipients that must deploy antibacterial molecules to survive in a bacterial world.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) helps slightly beneficial genes persist in microbial populations, incentivising cells to invest in costly DNA uptake, even in the presence of harmful selfish genetic elements.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) analysis in polyextremophile red algae (Cyanidiales) provides explanations for the nonexistence of cumulative effects and eukaryotic pangenomes, and highlights differences between HGT and native genes.
Cells resolve unassigned codons with near-cognate suppression, frameshifting, and ribosomal rescue mechanisms, demonstrating that unassigned codons are permissible in both natural and engineered genetic codes as barriers to horizontal gene transfer.