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    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Non-canonical TAF complexes regulate active promoters in human embryonic stem cells

    Glenn A Maston et al.
    The transcription machinery used to regulate gene expression and self-renewal in human embryonic stem cells is different from that found in other cells.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Evolution and cell-type specificity of human-specific genes preferentially expressed in progenitors of fetal neocortex

    Marta Florio et al.
    Transcriptomic and genomic analysis provides a resource of 50 primate-specific genes preferentially expressed in neural progenitors of fetal human neocortex, 15 of which are specific to humans.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine

    Transcriptomic analyses reveal rhythmic and CLOCK-driven pathways in human skeletal muscle

    Laurent Perrin et al.
    Rhythmic transcriptome analyses of human skeletal muscle tissue and cultured primary myotubes reveal an essential role for the circadian coordination of glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism in human skeletal muscle.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Integration of human pancreatic islet genomic data refines regulatory mechanisms at Type 2 Diabetes susceptibility loci

    Matthias Thurner et al.
    Human pancreatic islet high-resolution chromatin state maps generated from DNA methylation, open chromatin and ChIP-seq mark data facilitate the characterisation of regulatory mechanisms at type 2 diabetes genome-wide association study loci.
    1. Neuroscience

    A transient cortical state with sleep-like sensory responses precedes emergence from general anesthesia in humans

    Laura D Lewis et al.
    Intracranial recordings of human brain activity during awakening from general anesthesia exhibit a brief brain state not seen during loss of consciousness, in which stimuli elicit large electrophysiological responses that resemble those seen in sleep.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Neuroscience

    Species and cell-type properties of classically defined human and rodent neurons and glia

    Xiao Xu et al.
    Gene expression and epigenetic profiling of defined cell types in the central nervous system of mouse, rat, and human reveals inter-species and inter-individual differences.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Reconstructing human pancreatic differentiation by mapping specific cell populations during development

    Cyrille Ramond et al.
    A set of cell surface markers reconstruct human pancreatic differentiation and enable the segregation of pancreatic functions into specific populations.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Rapid evolution of the human mutation spectrum

    Kelley Harris, Jonathan K Pritchard
    Heritable mutations tend to occur within different DNA sequence contexts in different human populations, suggesting that DNA replication and repair often change in efficacy over only a few hundred generations of evolution.
    1. Ecology
    2. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Hidden shift of the ionome of plants exposed to elevated CO2 depletes minerals at the base of human nutrition

    Irakli Loladze
    Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide reduce the mineral content but increase the levels of starch and sugars found in crop plants; which could exacerbate both obesity and malnutrition in some human populations.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide is a functional receptor for human hepatitis B and D virus

    Huan Yan et al.
    Biochemical and genetic tests have revealed that a liver protein called NTCP is a functional receptor for hepatitis B and D viruses, which should lead to an improved understanding of the infections caused by these viruses and assist the development of new intervention strategies.