A large variety of spatial representations implied in rodent navigation could arise robustly and rapidly from inputs with a weak spatial structure, by an interaction of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity.
Stochastic tuning of gene expression could be a common mechanism through which eukaryotic cells adapt to challenging external environments, potentially including survival of infectious organisms within the host and adaptation of cancer cells to chemotherapy.
Natural step-to-step variations show how human running is stabilized, underscoring the importance of center of mass control and showing how humans run without falling despite muscle noise and uneven terrain.
An analysis of peer review and funding outcomes of NIH research applications shows that funding disparities of topics preferred by African American Black investigators are not due to peer review preferences or biases.
During human running, the soleus muscle was found to operate as work generator under optimal conditions for work production (high force-length potential and enthalpy efficiency) while the vastus lateralis promoted tendon energy storage and economical force generation (high force-length-velocity potential).
A more balanced distribution of NIH grant funding among investigators would strengthen the diversity of the research enterprise, increase the likelihood of scientific breakthroughs, and lead to a greater return on taxpayers' investments.