A previously unrecognized group of metalloenzymes enables human gut microbes to metabolize dietary molecules and neurotransmitters and likely mediates interactions and metabolism among environmental microorganisms.
Sponges and ctenophores lack hypoxia-inducible factors, suggesting that the metazoan last common ancestor could have lived aerobically under severe hypoxia and did not need to regulate its transcription in response to oxygen availability.
Step-wise processing of plant peptide hormone precursors by subtilisin-like proteinases in consecutive compartments of the secretory pathway is required for formation and secretion of the bioactive peptides.
Multi-omics reveals that Alkb homolog 7 (ALKBH7), α mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dioxygenase of unclear function, regulates glyoxal metabolism, which may explain its role in necrosis and heart attack.
The common post-translational modification trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline is reversed by gut microbes with the help of hydroxyproline dehydratase (HypD), an enzyme that performs a radical chemical mechanism.