222 results found
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    The AFF4 scaffold binds human P-TEFb adjacent to HIV Tat

    Ursula Schulze-Gahmen et al.
    Structure-function analysis of the super elongation complex formed when HIV replicates inside cells reveals that the HIV-1 Tat protein binds to a cleft between P-TEFb, an enzyme that is involved in normal transcription, and AFF4, a protein that is used to build the super elongation complex
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    The insulin receptor cellular IRES confers resistance to eIF4A inhibition

    Calla M Olson et al.
    Utilizing a conserved mechanism, a ribosome can initiate translation from a site within the insulin receptor mRNA to maintain protein synthesis even when standard mechanisms of initiating translation have been inhibited by stress.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    UNC-13L, UNC-13S, and Tomosyn form a protein code for fast and slow neurotransmitter release in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Zhitao Hu et al.
    Long and short variants of a protein called UNC-13, assisted by another called Tomosyn, regulate the timing of synaptic vesicle release in C. elegans.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    MAVS recruits multiple ubiquitin E3 ligases to activate antiviral signaling cascades

    Siqi Liu et al.
    A cell-free system combined with cell-based assays elucidate the biochemical mechanism of signal transduction mediated by the mitochondrial protein MAVS and delineates the role of ubiquitin E3 ligases in antiviral innate immune responses.
    1. Cell Biology

    Bax and Bak function as the outer membrane component of the mitochondrial permeability pore in regulating necrotic cell death in mice

    Jason Karch et al.
    The proteins Bax and Bak, which increase the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane during apoptosis, are also crucial for generating a mitochondrial membrane pore that is specifically involved in necrosis.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Mechanism of synergistic activation of Arp2/3 complex by cortactin and N-WASP

    Luke A Helgeson, Brad J Nolen
    Single-molecule TIRF microscopy, biochemical assays and mathematical modeling demonstrate how actin-branch nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex is coordinately regulated by two biochemically distinct activators.
    1. Neuroscience

    Position of UNC-13 in the active zone regulates synaptic vesicle release probability and release kinetics

    Keming Zhou et al.
    The precise position of UNC-13 at the active zone near a synapse depends on the N-terminus of the protein, and the C2A domain in particular, and is essential for accelerating neurotransmitter release.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mouse rods signal through gap junctions with cones

    Sabrina Asteriti et al.
    Electrophysiological recordings show that cones in the eyes of mice are able to receive strong input from rods via gap junctions, supporting the view that this route plays an important role in vision.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    An allosteric Sec61 inhibitor traps nascent transmembrane helices at the lateral gate

    Andrew L MacKinnon et al.
    A small molecule, cotransin, blocks transmembrane domains form integrating into cell membranes by allosterically ‘locking’ the lateral gate of the Sec61 translocation channel.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Synaptotagmin 7 functions as a Ca2+-sensor for synaptic vesicle replenishment

    Huisheng Liu et al.
    Two proteins—synaptotagmin 7 and calmodulin—have central roles in the calcium-dependent pathway that maintains synaptic transmission.

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