Male-type aggressive and courtship behaviors of the fruit flies are differentially specified by two sex-determining genes, providing a substrate for the evolution to sculpt these two behaviors independently.
The midbrain area for salience, reward and aversion in mouse brain harbours among the dopamine cells three subtypes somatostatin-expressing neurons that show combinatorial neurotransmitter phenotypes and interneuron properties.
While the basal ganglia have long been thought to mediate learning through dopamine-dependent striatal plasticity, their regulation of motor thalamus plays an unexpected and critical role in reinforcement.
A computational model of the thalamocortical network explains sleep stages by the coordinated variations in the level of neuromodulators and predicts differences of sleep pattern in human, cat and mouse recordings.
Primate amygdala neurons provide a coordinated representation of space and motivational significance whereby amygdala responses to visual stimuli predicting either rewards or aversive stimuli could influence spatial attention in a similar manner.
A single neonatal inflammatory event induces long-term impairments in two forms of adult respiratory motor plasticity, an important aspect of the control of breathing for compensation after injury or disease.