Principal neurons of the brainstem nucleus comparing sound level at the two ears do not have the slow response properties previously attributed to them, but are instead specialized for fast weighing of excitation and inhibition.
Functional UltraSound imaging allows mapping tonotopic organisation in multiple auditory subcortical and cortical brain structures with an unprecedented spatial functional resolution, while giving access to long-distance top-down connectivity pattern from frontal cortex to auditory cortex.
Softer sound appears closer to midline than louder sound, conflicting with a labelled-line representation of auditory space and supporting the idea that humans use rate coding when calculating sound directionality.
MRI methods are promising techniques for investigating the human subcortical auditory system, and these publicly available data, atlases, and tools make researching human audition simpler and more reliable.
While the basal ganglia have long been thought to mediate learning through dopamine-dependent striatal plasticity, their regulation of motor thalamus plays an unexpected and critical role in reinforcement.