Neuronal recordings from rat visual cortex reveal an object-processing pathway, along which neuronal representations become increasingly capable of supporting recognition of visual objects in spite of variation in their appearance.
Regulatory success operates by goal-consistent increases and decreases of distinct attribute representations in generic neural hubs and in domain-specific brain regions, explaining when and why regulatory success generalizes across domains and contexts.
The anticipation of rewards turns out to have its own hedonic value, on top of that of the reward itself; a wide range of behavioral and neurophysiological data suggest that this anticipation is boosted by prediction errors.
The subcortical visual pathway through the midbrain superior colliculus is responsible for visually evoked Pavlovian conditioning and dopamine neuron responses with predicted value in monkeys, which remained after lesioning V1.
Stunning new scan data of an enigmatic fish from the Early Devonian of Australia, Ligulalepis, is identified as a stem osteichthyan, specifically, as the sister taxon to the 'psarolepids' plus crown osteichthyans.